PID Controller Tuning & Advanced Process Control Techniques
Course is designed for engineers and technicians and includes basic terminology and building blocks of process control and advanced process control techniques. The course consists of classroom and lab time. Attendees will use software tools to tune loops and implement advanced controls.
Day 1 - PID Controller Tuning
Learn how to perform effective and time-efficient tuning of single-input single-output PID controllers. The lecture material is supported and reinforced through detailed exercises which are performed using a process simulator and INTUNE PID Tuning Tools software.
This course begins with a review of the fundamentals of process control, moves to a practical treatment of PID algorithms, shows how to identify models for each of your applications and culminates in the use of these models in determining the optimal PID tuning parameters. Along the way, you are exposed to easy-to-use techniques for tuning PID controllers and trained on how to recognize those applications for which PID controller tuning is not necessarily the root cause of substandard process control.
The Basics and Language of Process Control Process Control is a field of expertise which uses terminology and acronyms which are very specific to control. Concepts such as “reverse and directing acting”, “open-loop vs. closed-loop”, “paraller vs. interactive PID control will be reviewed and discussed.
Setting Goals for Your PID Controllers
What is most important for your applications? The ability to effectively and quickly reject disturbances? The ability to track setpoint changes as quickly as possible? Minimizing any process variable “overshoot” of the setpoint? An in-depth discussion of how to set your goals and how your goals will impact your controller tuning will be presented.
The Mathematics Behind PID Control What are the P, I, D parameters? How do they work? Are all the PID algorithms offered by the control system vendors the same? If not, how do they differ? The class will go into great detail to investigate the differences between the various “flavors” of PID algorithms on the market today. There will also be a review of the different forms of tuning parameters used by these various algorithms. .
Identification of Processes in Your Facility / How to Model these Processes Is the process you are trying to control an “integrating” process? Or is it a non-integrating process? Does it exhibit a large amount of “deadtime” in its response? A detailed discussion is presented on the attributes of different processes and the techniques used to form a “mathematical model” of these processes.
Guidelines for Trail-and-Error Tuning of PID Controllers If you are unable to perform tests on your process in order to obtain an estimate of its model you may have to resort to the “trial-and-error” method of tuning. Guidelines are presented that will provide a structured framework around trial-and-error tuning giving the user a much greater chance at arriving at “good tuning parameters” in a shorter amount of time when compared to random trial-and-error practices.
Conversion of Process Models into Optimal PID Tuning Parameters for Controlling the Process If you have the ability to perform tests which will facilitate the determination of a mathematical model for your process, then finding the best tuning parameters becomes a straightforward three-step process. A detailed discussion of how to “convert” the model of your process into optimal PID tuning parameters is presented. Also a discussion on how to convert between various PID tuning parameters is presented as well.
Adaptive Tuning The benefits of adaptive tuning and non-intrusive loop diagnostics for different process loops is presented along with an exercise which demonstrates the power and utility of this method of tuning PID controllers.
Day 2 - Advanced Process Control Techniques
Learn the techniques for commonly used process control strategies beyond that of basic PID control. Topics included are cascade control, override control, gain scheduling, feedforward compensation, and model-based control.
Review applications that will require these more advanced strategies, along with common implementation pitfalls that often produce less than desirable results. Attendees will practice implementing each technique against a simulated process and will perform a what-if analysis for each example.
The class is comprised of both classroom instruction (PowerPoint presentations that are provided in hard copy to all attendees) and laboratory work using process simulation examples.
Students will receive copies of all the simulations used in class. Examples will range from basic flow, temperature, pressure and level control, to distillation control, furnace firing control, blending applications, pH control and extrusion control. This list is just a sample of the examples which will be covered during the training.
Cascade Control Benefits of cascade control; examples of typical applications; Common implementation issues; implementation of reset windup algorithms; simulation and examples.
Feedforward Control Benefits of feedforward control; examples of typical applications; Implementation techniques; simulation and examples which demonstrate how feedforward control can minimize process disturbances.
Gain Scheduling and Multiple PID Discussion and definition of process nonlinearity; How nonlinearity can affect your process; Implementation of gain scheduling; Demonstration of the benefits of gain scheduling.
Override Control Discussion of override control for process safety; Implementation of override control; Discussion of the importance of controller tracking; Simulation.
Long Deadtime Processes Discussion of other common control issues and their solutions; how to deal with deadtime created by process analyzers; how to use laboratory results in your controls.
Model-based Control Definition of model-based control. Review of applications which require model-based control; examples and simulation of how model-based controllers can improve your process control.
Day 3 - Boilers and Power Generation
This class provides an overview of all critical boiler control loops and control methods, as well as step-by-step techniques for tuning each application area. We will also discuss common difficulties, pitfalls, and special considerations that often make proper boiler tuning so challenging. Hands-on exercises throughout the training will help attendees better understand boiler tuning principles.
Load Demand Control
Lab time — Hands-on exercise tuning unit master controls
Main Boiler Control Loops
Unit Master (MW and Throttle Pressure)
Drum Level Control
Fuel Flow Control
Air Flow Control
SH/RH Steam Temperature Control
Furnace Pressure Control
Excess O2 Control
Pollution Controls (NOx, SOx, Opacity)
Trim Control Principles and Uses
Function Generators Characterization
Specifc Tuning Principles and Step-by-Step Procedures for:
Feedwater Flow / Drum Level Control
Air Flow / Excess O2 Control
Fuel Flow Control
Primary Air Flow, & Fuel / Air Temperature Control (as needed per boiler and fuel type)
Superheat and Steam Attemperation Control
Unit Master Control Tuning or Boiler- and Turbine-Master
Required: Laptop computer with USB drive and WiFi enabled.
Participants should bring a laptop computer with USB port and WiFi enabled to class.